Barriers to DevOps in government

There’s just as much pull for DevOps in government as there is in the private sector. While most of our focus around adoption is on how businesses can and are using DevOps and continuous delivery, supported by cloud, to create better software, many government agencies are in the same position and would benefit greatly from figuring out how to apply DevOps in their organizations.

Just 13% of respondents in a recent MeriTalk/Accenture survey of 152 US Federal IT managers believed they could “develop and deploy new systems as fast as the mission requires.” The impact of improving on that could be huge. For example, the US Federal government, by conservative estimates, spends $84 billion a year on IT. And yet, the Standish Group believes that 94% of government IT projects fail. These are huge numbers that, with even small improvements, can have massive impact. And that’s before even considering the benefits of simply improving the quality of software used to provide government services.

As with any organization, the first filter for applicability is whether or not the government organization is using custom written software to accomplish it’s goals. If all the organization is doing is managing desktops, mobile, and packaged software, it’s likely that just SaaS and BYOD are the important areas to focus on. DevOps doesn’t really apply, unless there’s software being written and deployed in your organization or, as is more common in government agencies, for your organization as we’ll get to when we discuss “contractors.”

When it comes to adopting and being successful with DevOps, the game isn’t too different than in the business world: much of the change will have to do with changing your organization’s process and “culture,” as well as adopting new tools that automate much of what was previously manual. You’ll still need to actually take advantage of the feedback loop that helps you improve the quality of your software, in respect to defect, performance in production, and design quality. There are a few things that tend to be more common in government organizations that bear some discussion: having to cut through red-tape, dealing with contractors, and a focus on budget.

Living with red-tape

While “enterprise” IT management tasks can be onerous and full of change review boards and process, government organizations seem to have mastered the art of paperwork, three ring binders, and red tape in IT. As an example, in the US Federal government, any change needs to achieve “Authority To Operate” which includes updating the runbook covering numerous failure conditions, certifying security, and otherwise documenting every aspect of the change in, to the DevOps minded, infinitesimal detail. And why not? When was the last time your government “failed fast” and you said “gosh, I guess they’re learning and innovating! I hope they fail again!” No, indeed. Governments are given little leash for failure and when things go terribly wrong, you don’t just get a tongue lashing from your boss, but you might get to go talk to Congress and not in the fun, field-trip how a bill is made kind of way. Being less cynical, in the military, intelligence, and law enforcement parts of government, if things go wrong more terrible things than denying you the ability to upload a picture of your pot roast to Instagram can happen. It’s understandable — perhaps, “explainable” — that government IT would be wrapped up in red-tape.

However, when trying to get the benefits of continuous delivery, DevOps, and cloud (or “cloud native” as that tryptic of buzzwords is coming to be known), government organizations have been demonstrating that the comforting mantle of red-tape can be stripped. For example, in the GSA, the 18F group has reduced the time it takes to get a change through from 9–14 months to just two to three days.

They achieved this because now when they deploy applications on their cloud native platform (a Cloud Foundry instance that they run on Amazon Web Services) they are only changing the application, not the whole stack of software and hardware below the application layer. This means they don’t need to re-certify the he middleware, runtimes and development frameworks, let alone the entire cloud platform, operating systems used, networking, hardware, and security configurations. Of course, the new lines of application code need to be checked, but because they’re following the small batch principles of continuous delivery, those net-new lines are few.

The lesson here is that you’ll need to get your change review process — the red-tape spinners — to trust the standard cloud platform you’re deploying your applications on. There could be numerous ways to do this from using a widely used cloud platform like Cloud Foundry, building up trusted automation build processes, or creating your own platform and software release pipelines that are trusted by your red-tape mavens.

Contractors & Lost Competency

If you want to get staff in a government IT department ranting at you all night long, ask them about contractors. They loathe them and despise them and will tell you that they’re “killing” government IT. Their complaints is that contractors cannot structurally deal with an Agile mentality that refuses to lock-down a full list of features that will be delivered on a specific date. As you shift to not even a “DevOps mindset,” but an Agile mindset where the product team is more discovering with each iteration what the product will be and how to best implement it, you need the ability to change scope throughout the project as you learn and adapt. There is no “fail fast” (read: learning) when the deliverables 12 months out are defined in a 300 page document that took 3–6 months to scope and define.

Once again, getting into this state is likely explainable: it’s not so much that any actor is responsible, it’s more that the management in government IT departments is now responsible to fix the problem. The problem is more than a square peg (waterfall mentalities from contractors) in a round-hole (government IT departments that want to be more Agile) issue. After several decades of outsourcing to contractors, there’s also a skills and cultural gap in the IT departments. Just as custom written software is becoming strategically important to more organizations, many large IT departments find themselves with little experience and even less skill when it comes to software and product development. I hear these same complaints frequently from the private sector who’ve outsourced IT for many years, if not decades.

The Agile community has long discussed this problem and there are always interesting, novel efforts to get back to insourcing. A huge part is simply getting the terms of outsourcing agreements to be more compatible. The flip-side of this is simplifying the process to become a government contractor: it’s sure not easy at the moment. Many of the newer, more Agile and DevOps minded contractors are smaller shops that will find the prospect of working with the government daunting and, well, less profitable than working with other organizations. Making it easier for more shops to sign up will introduce more competitions rather than the more limited strangle-hold by paperwork, smaller market that exists now. The current pool of government contractors seems mostly dominated by larger shops that can navigate the government procurement process and seem to, for whatever reason, be the ones who are the most inflexible and waterfall-y.

Another part is refusing to ceed project management and scoping management to external partiers; and, making sure you have the appropriate skills in-house to do so. Finally, the management layers in both public and private sector need to recognize this as a gap that needs to be filled and start recruiting more in-house talent. Otherwise, the highly integrated state of DevOps — let alone a product focus vs. a project focus — will be very hard to achieve.

Addressing budgetary concerns with waste removal

Every organization faces budget problems. We call them “unicorns” because they have this mythical quality of seemingly unlimited budget. The spiral horn-festooned are the exception that proves the rule that all organizations are expected to spend money wisely. Government, however, seems to operate in a permanent state of shrinking IT budgets. And even when government organizations experience the rare influx of cash, there’s hyper-scrutiny on how it’s spent. To me, the difference is that private sector companies can justify spending “a lot” of money if “a lot” of profit results, where-as government organizations don’t find such calculations as easily. Effectively, government IT departments have to prove that they’re spending only as much money as necessary and strategically plan to have their budget stripped down in each budgetary cycle.

Here, the Lean-think part of DevOps can actually be very helpful and, indeed, may become a core motivation for government to look to DevOps. My simplification of the goals of DevOps are to:

  1. Ensure that the software has good availability (which it does by focusing on resilience vs. perfection, the ability to recover from failure quickly rather than avoiding all failure by rarely changing anything). This is something that recent failures in US Federal government IT can appreciate.
  2. Enable the weekly, if not daily, deployment of new code into production with continuous delivery. The goal here is to improve the quality of the software, both bugs and “design” quality, ensuring that the software is what users actually want by iterating over features frequently.

Those two goals end up working harmoniously together (with smaller batches of code deployed more frequently, you reduce the risk of each causing major downtime, for example). For government organizations focused on “budget,” the focus on removing as much “waste” from the system to speed up the delivery cycle starts to look very attractive for the cost-cutting minded. A well functioning DevOps shop will spend much time analyzing the entire, end-to-end cycle with value-stream mapping, stripping out all the “stupid” from the process. The intention of removing waste in DevOps think is more about speeding up the software release process and helping ensure better resilience in production, but a “side effect” can be removing costs from the system.

Often, in the private sector we say that resources (time, money, and organization attention) saved in this process can be reallocated to helping grow the business. This is certainly the case in government, where “the business” is, of course, understood not as seeking profits but delivering government services and fulfilling “mission” requirements. However, simply reducing costs by finding and removing unneeded “waste” may be an highly attractive outcome of adopting DevOps for governments.

“Bureaucracy” doesn’t have to be a bad word

As with any large organization, governments can be horrendous bureaucracies. Pulling out the DevOps empathy card, it’s easy to understand why people in such government bureaucracies can start to stagnate and calcify, themselves becoming grit in the gears of change if not outright monkey-wrenches.

In particular, there are two mind-sets that need to change as government staff adopt DevOps:

  1. Analysis paralysis — The almost default impulse to over analyze and specify with ponderous, multi-100 page documents the shifting to a more Agile and DevOps mindset. A large part of the magic of DevOps and Agile think is avoiding analysis paralysis and learning by doing rather than thinking in .docx. Government teams not familiar with smaller batch, experiment-based approaches to software development would do well to read up on Lean Startup think, perhaps checking out Lean Enterprise for a compendium of current best practices and, well, mindsets.
  2. Stagnant minds — large organizations, particularly government ones, can breed a certain learned helplessness and even laziness in individuals. If things are slow moving, impossible to change, and managed in a tall blade of grass gets cut style, individuals will tune out rapidly. If DevOps is understood as a practice to help jump-start all too slow IT organizations, it’ll often be the case that individuals in that organization are in this stagnated mindset. One of the key challenges becomes inspiring and then motivating staff to care enough to try something new and stick with it.

Again, these problems frequently happen in the private sector. But, they seem to be larger problems in government that bear closer attention. Thankfully, it seems like leaders in government know this: in a recent Gartner, global survey, 40% of government CIOs said they needed to focus more on developing and communicating their vision and do more coaching. In contrast, 60% said they needed to reduce the time spent in command-and-control mode. Leading, rather than just managing, the IT department, as ever, is key to the transformative use of IT.

More than rats dragging pizza

In any given time, it’s easy to be dismissive of government as wasteful and even incompetent. That’s the case in the U.S. at least, if you can judge based on the many politicians who seem to center their political campaigns around the idea of government waste. In contrast, we praise the private sector for their ability to wield IT to…better target ads to get us to buy sugar coated corn flakes. Don’t get me wrong, I’m part of the private sector and I like my role chasing profit. But we in the “enterprise” who are busy roaming the halls of capitalism don’t often get the chance to positively effect, let alone simply help and improve the lives of, everyone on a daily basis. Government has that chance and when you speak with most people who are passionate about using IT better in government, they want to do it because they are morally motivated to help society.

The benefits of adopting DevOps have been clearly demonstrated in recent years, and for businesses we’re seeing truth in the statement that you’re either becoming a software organization or losing to someone who is. As government organizations start to think about improving how they do IT, they have the chance to help all of us, “winning” isn’t zero-sum like it can be in the business world. To that end, as we in the industry find new, better ways to create and deliver software, it behoves us to figure out how government can benefit as well. That’ll get us a even closer towards making software suck less something we’ll all benefit from.

(I originally wrote this September 2015 for FierceDevOps, a site which has made it either impossible or impossibly tedious to find these articles. Hence, it’s now here.),, @cote,,