“Fully one in six of the projects we studied was a black swan, with a cost overrun of 200%, on average, and a schedule overrun of almost 70%.”
Original source: Why Your IT Project May Be Riskier Than You Think
The primary measure of progress for the Scrum Team is working software, but the primary measure of progress for the Product Owner is user stories that are “ready,” which is a very nebulous concept.
a Kanban board can make a cross-functional team feel more like a reality. In a large organization, where there are specialist systems, software, hardware, and test engineers, the various disciplines are usually not going to start performing work in each other disciplines, no matter whether or not they are on the same agile team. But by working off the same board, at least they are in the position of being able to visualize each other’s work and see how what they are doing contributes to the success of the whole program.
the advantage of lean and Kanban approaches is that they make explicit and visible the full state of a program in a way that encourages people to make good decisions for improvement to the process as a whole rather than optimizing for one part of the process. This includes the poor product owner, whose work is finished before most agile boards start.
From: “The Case for Lean: Capturing Business Work”
This is pretty much all the project management us kids who grew up in the 80s learned.