In 2017 basic needs such as housing, healthcare, food and energy accounted for 41 percent of household spending, compared to 36 percent in 2008. Housing and maintenance in particular became a relatively larger cost item, increasing from 19.5 percent in 2008 to 23.7 percent in 2017. Healthcare accounted for 3.8 percent of household spending in 2017, compared to 3.1 percent in 2008. Households also spent a larger portion of their income on food and non-alcoholic beverage, increasing from 10.1 percent to 10.8 percent. According to ING, this is due to faster than average price increases.